Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 32

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::clean() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 33

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 463

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 464

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 465

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 466

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 467

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanArray() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 468

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 35

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 38

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 39

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 47

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 50

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 53

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 54

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/index.php on line 34

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JObject in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/base/object.php on line 57

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/factory.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplicationHelper::getClientInfo() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 132

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getRouter() should be compatible with & JApplication::getRouter($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/www2voce/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getPathWay() should be compatible with & JApplication::getPathway($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/www2voce/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSite::getMenu() should be compatible with & JApplication::getMenu($name = NULL, $options = Array) in /home/www2voce/public_html/includes/application.php on line 377

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/registry.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSession::set() should be compatible with JObject::set($property, $value = NULL) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 737

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JSessionStorageNone::register() should be compatible with JSessionStorage::register($options = Array) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/storage/none.php on line 38

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 423

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/import.php:29) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/session/session.php on line 426

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/parameter.php on line 21

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JRegistryFormatINI::objectToString() should be compatible with JRegistryFormat::objectToString(&$object) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/registry/format/ini.php on line 281

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::importPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/index.php on line 44

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 92

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/plugins/system/jxtended.php on line 51

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class JPlugin in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/plugin.php on line 75

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JEvent::update() should be compatible with JObserver::update() in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/event/event.php on line 29

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getApplication() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/plugins/system/nonumberelements.php on line 18

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getCmd() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/plugins/system/nonumberelements.php on line 27

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 151

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Redefining already defined constructor for class CMSDb in /home/www2voce/public_html/components/libraries/cmslib/spframework.php on line 240

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 97

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JDispatcher::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 140

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::getPlugin() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 147

Strict Standards: Non-static method JPluginHelper::_load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/plugin/helper.php on line 41

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/cache.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JCacheStorage::get() should be compatible with JObject::get($property, $default = NULL) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/storage.php on line 173

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/components/com_content/router.php on line 120

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/includes/application.php on line 345

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JMenu::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 720

Strict Standards: Non-static method JError::isError() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 721

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getInt() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/index.php on line 58

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 179

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 134

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/components/libraries/cmslib/helper/url.php on line 74

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 134

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getWord() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/components/com_jomcomment/plugins/system.php on line 60

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 236

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 134

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/document.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JDocumentHTML::setBuffer() should be compatible with JDocument::setBuffer($content) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/document/html/html.php on line 394

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getCmd() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/index.php on line 70

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::getVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 255

Strict Standards: Non-static method JRequest::_cleanVar() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 134

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFilterInput::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/request.php on line 577

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186
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Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of ContentController::display() should be compatible with JController::display($cachable = false) in /home/www2voce/public_html/components/com_content/controller.php on line 28

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method JHTMLBehavior::caption() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method JHTML::script() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html/behavior.php on line 63

Strict Standards: Non-static method JHTML::_() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 172

Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method JHTMLBehavior::mootools() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 91

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getConfig() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html/behavior.php on line 46

Strict Standards: Non-static method JHTML::script() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html/behavior.php on line 56

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::root() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 176

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::base() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/uri.php on line 276

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/environment/uri.php on line 276

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDocument() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 179

Strict Standards: Non-static method JURI::root() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 176

Strict Standards: Non-static method JFactory::getDocument() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/html/html.php on line 179

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Declaration of JCacheView::get() should be compatible with JCache::get($id, $group = NULL) in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/handler/view.php on line 150

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::load() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 161

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 138

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/components/com_content/router.php on line 19

Strict Standards: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/includes/application.php on line 345

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JMenu::getInstance() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 720

Strict Standards: Non-static method JError::isError() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/joomla/application/application.php on line 721

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 186

Strict Standards: Non-static method JLoader::register() should not be called statically in /home/www2voce/public_html/libraries/loader.php on line 71

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La invasión a Panamá

ecos, mensajes y lecciones de la operación

‚Äúcausa justa‚ÄĚ

Hugo Sergio Gómez S.

En fecha reciente, Estados Unidos firmó un gran acuerdo para combatir al crimen organizado que amenaza a su país autorizando el uso de todos los medios a su alcance.

MILES DE J√ďVENES norteamericanos mueren cada a√Īo a consecuencia de la adicci√≥n a los opi√°ceos que, seg√ļn datos de la Agencia para el Esfuerzo Antidrogas (DEA por sus siglas en ingl√©s), vienen de M√©xico.

Hay un reclamo generalizado de que este tráfico es ya una amenaza a su seguridad nacional. Una solicitud de que se usen todos recursos tecnológicos, militares hasta financieros para su detención. Dentro de estas acciones le puso precio a la cabeza de algunos capos y líderes del narcotráfico en México.

¬ŅSer√° esta oferta en estas fechas un mensaje para hacerle saber a nuestro pa√≠s que para detener a los delincuentes no importa la injerencia territorial? Si no cree, revise la historia, solo para recordar que cuando ese pa√≠s se decide a emplear la fuerza contra aquello que pone en riesgo sus intereses, no mide el alcance de sus acciones.

Usa su poder militar en casos extremos o quizá sea pretexto para ejecutar estrategias políticas encubiertas. Ese fue el caso tal vez de la invasión a Panamá en diciembre de 1989, cuando desembarcaron 25 mil soldados en busca del general Manuel Antonio Noriega, acusado de ser aliado de los carteles colombianos de las drogas y su alta permisividad al lavado de dinero.

Ser√≠a una de las m√°s amargas navidades que ha pasado ese peque√Īo pa√≠s centroamericano, ubicado en uno de los puntos m√°s estrat√©gicos del Planeta, donde est√° la estrecha v√≠a interoce√°nica que conecta al Oc√©ano Pac√≠fico y al Atl√°ntico.

Este caso, a juicio de los historiadores, no fue m√°s que el √ļltimo intento soslayado por parte de Estados Unidos por mantener la hegemon√≠a sobre este Canal, que es por donde han cruzado submarinos, destructores y tropas a ejecutar acciones militares in√©ditas: donde ten√≠a emplazados m√°s de 15,000 soldados en diversos fuertes y bases a√©reas para su control, la cuales seg√ļn el Tratado-Torrijos Carter, deb√≠an ser entregados al mediod√≠a del 31 de diciembre de 1999.

A decir de muchos analistas, el vecino pa√≠s no estaba dispuesto a entregar sin lucha su √ļltimo enclave extraterritorial, que en las postrimer√≠as del siglo XX ya era visto como una anacr√≥nica forma de colonialismo.

La invasi√≥n en 1989 fue solo un pretexto para analizar la posibilidad de mantener el control del Canal de Panam√°. He aqu√≠ una revisi√≥n de la efervescencia de hechos que como espiral se fueron elevando desde los a√Īos sesenta hasta desembocar en acciones militares.

Salida de Estados Unidos de la zona del Canal

La lucha de la juventud paname√Īa. Y es que, si nos remitimos a la historia contada por la cr√≥nica de los hechos, sabremos que esta operaci√≥n no fue una acci√≥n en contra del narcotr√°fico, sino tal vez los estertores de una forma de control armado que agonizaba a la luz de una juventud cada vez m√°s ilustrada e inconforme por vivir en un pa√≠s que era suyo a medias.

Pero estas protestas ya hab√≠an iniciado desde los a√Īos sesenta, cuando el 9 de enero de 1964 un joven de 17 a√Īos, Guillermo Guevara Paz organiz√≥ entre 150 a 200 estudiantes del Instituto Nacional hacia la Secundaria de Balboa, con la bandera paname√Īa de su escuela; y proclamando la soberan√≠a de Panam√° sobre la Zona del Canal con pancartas y con su voz.

La intención de los estudiantes era izar la bandera de Panamá en la asta de la Secundaria de Balboa en donde los estadounidenses habían izado la suya. El desencuentro entre jóvenes desembocó en la presencia de las fuerzas armadas resultando varios jóvenes muertos.

Paulatinamente, Panam√° fue ganando terreno. Despu√©s de nueve a√Īos de aquellos violentos enfrentamientos, se llevaron a cabo negociaciones para revertir el leonino acuerdo de 1903 que le daba a Estados Unidos hegemon√≠a a perpetuidad, adem√°s del Canal, sobre una franja territorial de 8 kil√≥metros por cada lado que se conoc√≠a como la ‚ÄúZona del Canal‚ÄĚ sin que hubiera fecha de caducidad.

As√≠, a instancias de Juan Antonio Tack canciller de Panam√°, se firmar√≠an los acuerdos Tack- Kissinger que daban algunas ventajas y cancelaban algunas acciones militares para sujetarse √ļnicamente a la protecci√≥n del Canal.

Pero no ser√≠a sino hasta julio de 1977, durante la administraci√≥n de Jimmy Carter en EE.UU. y Omar Torrijos en Panam√°, que se consolidar√≠a el gran acuerdo que le dar√≠a al pa√≠s centroamericano, el control total del Canal con la firma de los tratados gestionados por el doctor Nicol√°s Ardito Barletta y su hom√≥logo Ar√≠stides Royo, as√≠ como el administrador del Canal Alberto Alem√°n Zubieta. As√≠ con una base ya pactada el Canal fue entregado a los paname√Īos el 31 de diciembre de 1999.

El ascenso de Noriega al poder

Sin embargo, no todo ser√≠a miel sobre hojuelas, cuatro a√Īos despu√©s de la muerte de Torrijos en 1981, en un supuesto accidente a√©reo ascendi√≥ al poder de la c√ļpula militar Manuel Antonio Noriega, en medio de la duda de haber asesinado a Omar Torrijos e inici√≥ una serie de acciones para convertirse en quien realmente ejerc√≠a el poder en Panam√°.

De entrada, obligó a renunciar al presidente en turno Nicolás Ardito Barletta y se convirtió en un auténtico dictador. A partir de ahí el repudio popular se hizo patente por su abierto involucramiento en el tráfico de drogas aliándose con Pablo Escobar y los carteles colombianos. Pero su más grave error sería declararse en estado de guerra en contra de los EE.UU. el 15 de diciembre de 1989.

Sin miramientos, Panam√° ser√≠a invadido en una operaci√≥n que dur√≥ entre el 20 de diciembre de 1989 y el 30 de enero de 1990. Las calles del peque√Īo pa√≠s se vieron ensangrentadas e invadidas por tanquetas y de marines norteamericanos que disparaban sin piedad.

La condena mundial por estos actos fue generalizada: desde la OEA hasta la Unión Europea y la ONU que se pronunciaron exigiendo la salida de EE.UU. de Panamá. Al capturar a Noriega el ejército americano ya no encontró más pretextos para quedarse nuevamente en tierras centroamericanas y tuvo que salir llevando a Noriega preso a una cárcel de vecino país.

Pero estas acciones dejan lecciones al mundo: cuando los intereses internos se oponen a la pol√≠tica norteamericana, las consecuencias saltan a la vista. ¬ŅQu√© tanto puede hacer un mandatario cuya popularidad est√° en picada y con elecciones intermedias en las puertas? ¬ŅQu√© m√°s veremos, si con el pretexto del narcotr√°fico y el alto consumo de drogas se ejercen acciones militares? La historia, dec√≠a Borges es la madre de la verdad. Ah√≠ est√°n sus lecciones para quien quiera o√≠rlas.



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